Distributed Generation Technologies – Applications and Challenges

The practice of installing and operating electric generating equipment at or near the site of where the power is used is known as “distributed generation” (DG). Distributed generation provides electricity to customers on-site or supports a distribution network, connecting to the grid at distribution level voltages.

The traditional model of electricity generation in the United States, which may be referred to as “central” generation, consists of building and operating large power plants, transmitting the power over distances and then having it delivered through local utility distribution systems.

The practice of installing and operating electric generating equipment at or near the site of where the power is used is known as “distributed generation” (DG). Distributed generation provides electricity to customers on-site or supports a distribution network, connecting to the grid at distribution level voltages. DG technologies include engines, small (and micro) turbines, fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems.

Distributed generation may provide some or all of customers’ electricity needs. Customers can use DG to reduce demand charges imposed by their electric utility or to provide premium power or reduce environmental emissions. DG can also be used by electric utilities to enhance their distribution systems. Many other applications for DG solutions exist.

With existing technology, every industrial or commercial facility including factories, campuses, hospitals, hotels, department stores, malls, airports, and apartment buildings can generate enough electricity to meet its power needs under normal conditions, as well as have back-up power during a blackout.

Distributed generation systems can provide an organization with the following benefits:

* Peak Shaving;

* On-site backup poer during a voluntary interruption;

* Primary power with backup power provided by another supplier;

* Combined load heat and power for your own use;

* Load following for improved power quality or lower prices;

* To satisfy your preference for renewable energy

In conjunction with combined heat and power (CHP) applications, DG can improve overall thermal efficiency. On a stand-alone basis, DG is often used as back-up power to enhance reliability or as a means of deferring investment in transmission and distribution networks, avoiding network charges, reducing line losses, deferring construction of large generation facilities, displacing expensive grid-supplied power, providing alternative sources of supply in markets, and providing environmental benefits.

Power generation technologies have evolved significantly in the past decade, making DG much more efficient, clean, and economically viable.

Substantial efforts are being made to develop environmentally sound and cost-competitive small-scale electric generation that can be installed at or near points of use in ways that enhance the reliability of local distribution systems or avoid more expensive system additions. Examples of these distributed resources include fuel cells, efficient small gas turbines, and photovoltaic arrays.

This report on Distributed Generation Technologies takes an in-depth look at the industry and analyzes the various technologies that contribute to distributed generation in today’s age. The report focuses on these technologies through case studies, examples, and equations and formulas. The report also contains analysis of the leading countries actively promoting distributed generation.

4th Generation Wireless Technology – Application Model of Future Mobile Communications Systems

4G (Fourth Generation) Mobile Communication is still in evolution but countries have already started committing themselves to its implementation. India has said that it would leapfrog from 2G to 4G bypassing the 3G Technology. WiMax Technology is on its last legs because it does not support VoIP. Data transfers will happen at LAN Speeds of 100Mbps. The World is looking up to 4G for transformation of the way people do day-to-day business. Once the technology evolves, the hand phone used in 4G mobile communications would be an all in one device for use in education, arts and science, business activities outside the office, network games and music/video content downloading, Visual Communication, merchandise purchase and settlement, and daily life.

A few applications…

Medical Applications Overview of Evaluation by Potential Service Providers- The certainty and stability of connection were raised as the primary requirements on the communications infrastructure to realize medical services that take advantage of mobile communications. While it may be feasible to provide full-fledged remote medical treatment easily through high-quality images enabled by faster transmission speeds, stable uninterrupted communication was regarded indispensable and more important in the medical field.

Also, it is widely known that the provision of medical services are subject to many legal and regulatory restrictions. Consequently, services that can be offered by private entities are currently very limited. It has been pointed out on various occasions that this has hindered the flexible offering of new services in the medical field. This issue remains unsolved today, and no significant change can be expected soon, either. According to the opinions of potential service providers, the first steps to be taken would be to develop technologies and services and educate the medical industry so that consumers could generally share the recognition that high-quality medical service can be provided safely and securely through electronic medical records and networks.

Ultimate Content Player Simply by instructing the name of video (which does not necessarily have to be precise; ambiguous input will do) of users’ choice (TV programs broadcast in the past, news, dramas, movies, or concerts, etc.) through voice input, etc., users will be able to watch it on a mobile terminal through streaming from the network anytime and anywhere they like.

The charges for the content- which should be decided taking into account the requests of the rights holder, the number of accesses from users (popularity), video quality, the number of copies, the time of viewing, location, etc.-will be present on the spot, and if the user agrees, the video will be made available for viewing. Also, when the user wants to see a movie using some spare time, for instance, during a business trip, he/she can search information concerning the movies currently on show and see a preview on the player. If he/she decides to watch the whole movie in a cinema, it is possible to search the theater that can be reached from the current location before the start of the movie, and if necessary, make a seat reservation and purchase electronic tickets, too. The videos can be viewed in trains on a spectacles-type display, which can be suspended for a moment when changing train

Navigation System Users will be able to gain access the following information services from inside moving vehicles. The information will be provided adequately depending on time, location and properties of user. Users may also be able to receive discounts at shops by presenting the information retrieved through the above. – Location information service (locating service, route guide, traffic information, etc.) – Vehicle information service (automobile information, vehicle tune-up information, etc). – Entertainment service (radio, TV programs, etc). – Control service (vehicle control if earthquake, accident, etc). – Emergency service (accident, sudden illness, etc). – Logistics service (parcel delivery, etc).

Mobile Ordering Enables easy purchase of products or obtainment of information simply by holding a mobile terminal toward printed materials (magazines, brochures, posters, etc.) or images. Information concerning the product (video, CM, specifications) will be automatically delivered to the mobile terminal from the product center, and displayed in 3D images, which can be viewed from multiple angles. Users, if they like, can order the product on the spot, make the payment and settle the accounts from a mobile terminal. Sales status in the areas nearby, and other related information on the product could also be obtained. The use of retinal authentication makes it possible to purchase expensive products without any security concerns.

From the viewpoint of the potential providers of settlement service, the reliability and cost of authentication hold the key for the settlement of purchases made at shops through mobile terminals, and ordering service linked with brochures and posters in the streets. When compared with credit card payments at shops or shopping from PCs/TV, the purchases to be made from mobile terminals are expected to be lower in amount but more frequent. It is therefore essential for the providers of settlement services that the authentication of the terminal and the users themselves, which have to be conducted every time a purchase is made, can be realized at a low cost equal with the low unit purchase amount.

Related Entities’ Evaluations and Expectations on this Application Evaluation on the presumed application Mobile settlement is already provided in existing mail-order service through product bar codes in the catalogs. This service is realistic as an extension of such existing services, enabling users to order more easily. Evaluation on Landline Internet became wide spread before the establishment of a content billing mechanism. On the other hand, wireless Internet provided a billing mechanism from the beginning, thus users developed the recognition to pay for premium contents. If services leveraging the display feature of mobile terminals that cannot be provided by ordinary credit cards (such as provision and display of coupons) can be realized, it may be possible to enlarge the market size.

Presumed business model Required conditions for the service to be A low-cost authentication method must be realized. Because the amount of unit purchase is projected to be small, the authentication scheme is the better the cheaper.

Food Manager Enables users to gain access the home refrigerator using a mobile terminal from outdoors-to see what is left with visual images or to confirm whether the consumption deadline for some food has expired or not. Users can also obtain recipes of menus that can be cooked with the food available in the refrigerator from the mobile terminal. Lacking food items will be presented on the screen, and if ordered, they will be delivered to the home by the evening.

If the users register in the mobile terminal the food items that they want to keep always in stock, when they pass in front of this item at a supermarket, its purchase may be recommended automatically. Or, just by holding the terminal close to the refrigerator, list of food items out of supply could be sent to food delivery companies to have them delivered to the home on the same day or in a few days.

After a few order placements, it will become possible to estimate the user’s consumption behavior. From the next time, therefore, an inquiry could be sent from the server center, asking, for example, “do you still have plenty of beer?”

Disaster Insurance For example, when somebody is crushed under the debris in a large-scale earthquake, the locating capability of cellular phones can provide precise information about the location of this person-the terminal is always connected to the Internet unless it is broken-and enables rescue activities to be undertaken swiftly. This service enables search of people holding a terminal within a certain area regardless of the carrier. Entities that are responsible for providing safety and reliability to users, such as government bodies and

Mobile Administrative Services Users can instantly access information and receive various administrative services from national/local governments from a mobile terminal from home or offices.

-Application for various documents/certificates
– Tax payment, filing for income tax return
– Issuance of maternity health record book, submission of birth report, application for baby health examination, and other health services
– Voting, etc.

MT4 Account Copier: A Useful Technological Application

The technological applications are seen in many fields but they have influenced some fields more. The forex trading is one such field that has become more popular because of technological advancements and applications. One such is the metatrader forex account copier.

The tool that is used most for this is the forex account copiers of many brands. Among them the MT4 account copier has been used by many men and women all over the world who are desirous of trading and gaining profit in this field. The metatrader4, the forex account copier can be installed in the computer for forex trading and copying trading signals.

Actually copying trading signals is really of great importance to make deal or trade in forex. The copier is working all the time even when the whole world is sleeping. It is an automatic tool that copies the signals of the forex trade. All the changes are recorded for our perusal.

It can be bought online or in any shop which sells such equipment for our use. The software is not expensive and anyone can afford it. Also the cost will get covered in a few transactions of profit. The software is easy to use too and we need not know the tricks of the forex trade to go in for an installation and go ahead with the trading.

First, the copier copies the trading signals. We can study all of them and then decide the deal that we think would be profitable and go ahead with it. A little experience doing some successful deals will suffice to build our confidence as most of them would depend on the changes taking place and the deals of other members that the copier has copied to our account.

The process is simple from our side but the forex account copiers follow some complex algorithms do all the transactions successfully.